NAME OF BEST PRACTICE:
Batteries2020 – increase the lifetime of Li-Ion batteries used by electric vehicles, reduce their cost
20500 MONDRAGON, Spain
WHERE: Europe, 7 EU member states (Spain, Denmark, Italy, Belgium, Switzerland and Germany).
WHEN: Implemented from 2013-09-01 to 2016-08-31
WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY: Recycling: Reuse – Reprocessing; Prevention: Replacement – Reduction
TYPE OF INSTRUMENT: Education, information, awareness raising, Infrastructure
WASTE STREAMS: Batteries
About: The best practice Batteries2020 aims to improve performance, lifetime and total cost of ownership of batteries for EVs by the simultaneous development of high-performing and durable cells, reliable lifetime prediction, understanding ageing phenomena and assessment of second life in renewable energy applications.
The main objective of the project was to make a series of research studies to improve the performance, lifetime and total cost of ownership of batteries. Specific project objectives were:
– A competitive European industrial cell production;
– Standardised methodology for battery life testing;
– Methodology for lifetime prediction;
– Thorough understanding of ageing and degradation through combination of tests, models and prediction focused in one system;
– Effect of variability on second life use;
– Cost reductions via:
– Better understanding of ageing – optimisation of battery size and specifications.
– Better materials resistant to ageing.
– Higher residual value through second life application understanding.
– Reliable diagnosis of cells State-of-Health (SoH).
Funding: The project is co-funded by the Eco-innovation initiative of the European Union
• Project reference: Project ID: 608936
• Total budget: EUR 8 398 727,98 €
• EU contribution: EUR 5 866 847 €
Human resources: the team consisted of project partners members
The project plan is designed towards achievement of significant results regarding various improvements in rechargeable battery systems.
A reference cell G1 was produced at the very beginning of the project to be the basis of a thorough ageing understanding, development of standard methodology, modelling and lifetime prediction validation. In parallel, materials were developed towards an intermediate second generation G2 of improved cells that will perform better, being characterised by the optimised protocols. In parallel to G2 ageing, has been assessed second life uses of G1 cells and further develop materials for the G3 cells generation towards EV targets. The project is promoting rapid generation of results and know-how that can be implemented into the new generation of materials, cells, methodologies and test procedures.
Quantifiable Awareness Raising/ media coverage, which led to education in waste management:
Rechargeable batteries are used on a large scale, in different types of equipment. Developing high-performance and low-cost batteries, will create real advantages not only in the industrial field or in electric car manufacturing, but also providing solutions that can be implemented by household users as well.
Considering that project partners are prestigious universities, respected car manufacturers, large manufacturers of rechargeable batteries, Association of European Automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers, rechargeable energy storage systems experts, etc., the project had a high level of implementing various educational initiatives (especially in universities). The project and the obtained products have been advertised to many conferences, exhibitions of innovative technologies, workshops, innovative cluster conferences, international vehicle congress, published papers or flyers.
Collected waste/environmental improvement:
The project is a very important practice in preventing the production of waste from batteries. It has been aimed at improving several features: extending life, evaluating batteries under certain conditions (preventing premature damage), reducing cost/kg, increasing capacity, optimizing battery size, optimizing control strategies.
Urban metabolism relevance
The practice encourages the automotive industry, thus improving the air quality in the city by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. The proposed practice encourages international policies to improve air quality in the cities. The researched practice addresses on both the prevention of disposing of batteries and on other hand on encouraging electric/hybrid automotive industry. The main target is to obtain an economic rechargeable battery with multiple uses, with a longer life and bigger capacity. The materials might be also cleaner or recycled.
There have been evaluated many material flows in the processes, for example the components of rechargeable batteries, the effects on environment, Promote trans-materialization of selective components seen as “traditional”; Promote furthermore second life application scenarios through robust business models while having small/reduced environmental burdens; Increased Energy Density tends to dilute environmental impacts; Assess the potential for hybrid electricity storage systems through the use of different cell types for added demand response flexibility; Reduce the energy intensiveness of the manufacturing processes. The practice have been analyzing by various studies ways to increase rechargeable battery life, quantifying material, energy, water and waste flows in an urban area. It promotes green urban infrastructure promotes healthy ecosystems, clean air, recreation, urban cohesiveness by moderating local climate, and preserving natural environment
Many studies have been oriented to the reduction in the quantity of materials required to serve the same economic functions, by reducing the battery size and weight, introducing new and innovative components.
Engaged participatory processes
The practice has been elaborated and implemented by research institutes and universities, auto vehicle constructing companies, European associations in transportation and battery construction. The research have been disseminated through various events:
– EPE’15 ECCE (17th Conference on Power Electronics and Applications)
– EEVC 2014 – European Electric Vehicle Congress
– 4th Generation EV Joint Cluster Conference
The consultation process have been highly considered, while the stakeholders had specific rolls in the project, on designing, evaluation testing, etc.
Additional info about the participatory process can be found here
The practice introduces technological innovations in rechargeable battery industry (to make them more reliable, smaller, use less material, live longer, etc), and brings new ways of analyzing the processes. A deep understanding of ageing phenomena and degradation mechanisms can help to identify critical parameters that affect lifetime battery performance. This identification helps effectively improving materials, system and the development of materials selection criteria. However, ageing and degradation mechanisms have multiple reasons and are complex.
They propose a realistic approach with a combined and well organised Consortium effort towards the development of robust testing methodology which will be improved in several steps. Combined accelerated, real tests, real field data, post-mortem, modelling and validation will provide a thorough understanding of ageing and degradation processes.
Sustainability and replicability
Once the development of cost-effective and highly efficient products are produced, the practice in sustainable and continues to have effect and be functional. The practice is proposed to be implemented on a large scale in the market as a new technology, helping reduce the amount of discarded waste (rechargeable battery). The research can be also applied in order to adopt new analyzing methodologies
1) the development of cost-effective chemistries;
2) Deep understanding of EV lifetime performance in order to obtain optimised control strategies that will enhance battery durability and allow adjustments in battery size and
3) recovering a fraction of the battery’s cost via reuse in second life applications (increase of battery residual value).
Waste, Resources, Innovation.
- Considerable time for testing and process efficiency.