Comparative Synthesis or benchmark
The presented compared aspects, per capita, are the ten MFA indicators and the eight urban metabolism (UM) indicators (Rosado et al., 2016).
The comparison is between areas with diverse geographical denominations (most are municipalities, but two of Italy’s cities are considered provinces), populations and in different years (as Spanish cities are modelled for year 2008 unlike the rest).
Upon comparing the MFA indicators, the cities exhibit consistent trends. For example, Albano Laziale has the lowest MFA indicators per capita of most areas, except for electricity imported (the lowest corresponds to Pomezia) and physical trade balance (the lowest corresponds to Cremona). On the contrary, the highest MFA indicators tend to be present either in Cremona or Leiria; except once again for electricity imported and physical trade balance. Pomezia follows close behind in terms of highest indicators, but its profile is more diverse as it also displays some low values e.g. domestic extraction and net addition to stock. Manresa has medium values all throughout, and Sabadell’s and Torino’s are lower but nonetheless above Albano Laziale’s.
The UM indicators follow similar trends per area. Notable is that Albano Laziale has the higher efficiency, which is an indication of how much of the waste undergoes some treatment that leads to recovery. This might be a cause for its remarkably low final consumption needs (Rosado et al., 2016). The diversity of process is the highest for Leiria, indicating a thriving domestic extraction and industrial production in the area and leading to a low dependency on other systems.
From the data available it is concluded that the Spanish cities are the most dependent on international systems, but it must be noted that the Italian cities lacked information regarding the imports. The most self-sufficient areas are Cremona and Leiria, because of their above-average domestic extractions. Finally, Torino has medium to low values in all regards.
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Graphical comparison between cities is available for the 5 material groups and represents the per capita value of the following indicators: DE, IMP, DMI, EXP and DEP, as well as DCM related to the existing economic activities.
For each indicator, the graph shows the comparison of cities regarding the different material groups.